PREPOSITION

PREPOSITION

Definition: Prepositions are a class of words that indicate relationships between nouns, pronouns and other words in a sentence. Most often they come before a noun. They never change their form, regardless of the case, gender etc. of the word they are referring to.

Some common prepositions are:

about

above

across

after

against

along

among

around

at

before

behind

below

beneath

beside

between

beyond

but    by

despite

down

during

except

for

from

in

inside

into

like

near

of

off

on

onto

out    outside

over

past

since

through

throughout

till

to

toward

under

underneath

until

up

upon

with

within

without.

 

Prepositions typically come before a noun:

For example:

after class

at home

before Tuesday

in London

on fire

with pleasure

A preposition usually indicates the temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence.

For example:

The book is on the table.

The book is beside the table.

She read the book during class.

 

In each of the preceding sentences, a preposition locates the noun «book» in space or in time.

Prepositions are classified as simple or compound.

Simple prepositions

Simple prepositions are single word prepositions. These are all showed above.

For example:

The book is on the table.

Compound prepositions

Compound prepositions are more than one word. in between and because of are prepositions made up of two words — in front of, on behalf of are prepositions made up of three words.

For example:

The book is in between War and Peace and The Lord of the Rings.

The book is in front of the clock.

Examples:

The children climbed the mountain without fear.

There was rejoicing throughout the land when the government was defeated.

The spider crawled slowly along the banister.

 

The following table contains rules for some of the most frequently used prepositions in English:

Prepositions of Time: English                            Usage         Example

on     days of the week  on Monday

in      months/seasons

time of day

year

after a certain period of time (when?)                in August / in winter

in the morning

in 2006

in an hour

at for night

for weekend

a certain point of time (when?)        at night

at the weekend

at half past nine

since  from a certain point of time (past till now)         since 1980

for     over a certain period of time (past till now)       for 2 years

ago    a certain time in the past        2 years ago

before         earlier than a certain point of time   before 2004

to      telling the time     ten to six (5:50)

past   telling the time     ten past six (6:10)

to / till / until        marking the beginning and end of a period of time      from Monday to/till Friday

till / until    in the sense of how long something is going to last     He is on holiday until Friday.

by     in the sense of at the latest

up to a certain time       I will be back by 6 o’clock.

By 11 o’clock, I had read five pages.

 

Prepositions of Place: English              Usage    Example

in      room, building, street, town, country

book, paper etc.

car, taxi

picture, world      in the kitchen, in London

in the book

in the car, in a taxi

in the picture, in the world

at      meaning next to, by an object

for table

for events

place where you are to do something typical (watch a film, study, work)         at the door, at the station

at the table

at a concert, at the party

at the cinema, at school, at work

on     attached

for a place with a river

being on a surface

for a certain side (left, right)

for a floor in a house

for public transport

for television, radio       the picture on the wall

London lies on the Thames.

on the table

on the left

on the first floor

on the bus, on a plane

on TV, on the radio

by, next to, beside         left or right of somebody or something     Jane is standing by / next to / beside the car.

under on the ground, lower than (or covered by) something else    the bag is under the table

below         lower than something else but above ground      the fish are below the surface

over  covered by something else

meaning more than

getting to the other side (also across)

overcoming an obstacle put a jacket over your shirt

over 16 years of age

walk over the bridge

climb over the wall

above         higher than something else, but not directly over it     a path above the lake

across         getting to the other side (also over)

getting to the other side walk across the bridge

swim across the lake

through      something with limits on top, bottom and the sides    drive through the tunnel

to      movement to person or building

movement to a place or country

for bed        go to the cinema

go to London / Ireland

go to bed

into   enter a room / a building        go into the kitchen / the house

towards      movement in the direction of something (but not directly to it)      go 5 steps towards the house

onto  movement to the top of something  jump onto the table

from  in the sense of where from      a flower from the garden